Psychology Day at the UN is an annual event that highlights how psychological science and practice contributes to the UN agenda. It’s attended by UN staff, ambassadors and diplomats, non-governmental organizations, members of the public and private sectors, and other stakeholders.
This year’s theme was “Promoting Well-being in the 21st Century: Psychological Contributions for Social, Economic, and Environmental Challenges.” The topic was chosen to align with the inclusion of well-being in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which was adopted in 2015 and outlines the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. In her remarks, Masten addressed the economic pillar by discussing her research on competence, risk, and resilience in development.
Research conducted by faculty in the Institute of Child Development (ICD) is demonstrating the importance of play for learning, according to a new article in CE+HD’s Connect magazine. The story is one of three articles about play that appear in the magazine’s Spring/Summer 2017 issue.
The article highlighted a recent study by Stephanie Carlson, Ph.D., a Distinguished McKnight University Professor in ICD, and colleagues that examined the “Batman Effect,” or how impersonating superheroes during pretend play can help children be more controlled and objective.
The piece also discussed how experts at the Minnesota Children’s Museum are incorporating ICD research into their exhibit and experience designs. The university is part of a research advisory committee for the museum.
Founded in 1780, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the country’s oldest learned societies and independent policy research centers. This is the 237th class of members elected. It includes winners of the Pulitzer Prize and the Wolf Prize, MacArthur Fellows, Fields Medalists, Presidential Medal of Freedom and National Medal of Arts recipients, and Academy Award, Grammy Award, Emmy Award, and Tony Award winners.
Gunnar is one of the nation’s leading researchers in child development and developmental psychobiology. Her work focuses on understanding how stress early in life “gets under the skin” to shape the body’s stress response systems and neurobehavioral development.
“Professor Gunnar is an exceptional faculty member whose research and leadership in her field has improved the lives of many children,” said Jean Quam, CEHD dean. “The University of Minnesota and the College of Education and Human Development are extremely proud of her accomplishments.”
Gunnar holds the University’s highest faculty honors as both a Regents Professor and Distinguished McKnight University Professor. She was recently elected to the National Academy of Education and has been honored with lifetime achievement awards by the American Psychological Association, Division 7 Developmental Psychology, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the Association for Psychological Science. Gunnar has a Ph.D. from Stanford University.
The 2017 class of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences will be inducted at a ceremony on October 7, 2017, in Cambridge, MA.
This year, six grants were awarded to highly-accomplished undergraduates who plan to conduct research in the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), impulse control in adolescents, restricted and repetitive behaviors, brain development and function, and employment challenges.
Thomas’ research will focus on the amygdala, an area of the brain affected in adults with autism. Her project will examine the function of the amygdala in toddlers to help better understand the biological basis of attention problems in young children. If identified early, problems may be responsive to treatment.
NAAEE is a membership organization that aims to accelerate environmental literacy and civic engagement through education. The Director’s Award recognizes an individual or organization that has made a significant contribution to the field of environmental education.
Williams Ridge was recognized for her work chairing the 2016 Nature-based Preschool Conference, the annual conference of NAAEE’s early childhood environmental education initiative, the Natural Start Alliance.
In addition, Williams-Ridge is on the advisory team for the Natural Start Alliance and the National Science Foundation-funded Science of Nature-Based Learning Collaborative Research Network. She also serves on the leadership team for the Council of Nature and Forest Preschools.
Founded in 1925, ICD is one of the oldest departments studying children’s development in the country. The Institute contributes to interdisciplinary programs in interpersonal relationships, prevention science, and infant and early childhood mental health. It also contributes groundbreaking research to the field of child development, including on topics related to executive function, resilience and autism.
To determine the rankings, U.S. News surveyed 379 schools granting education doctoral degrees. It calculates rankings based on quality assessments from peer institutions and school superintendents nationwide, student selectivity, and faculty research and resources, which includes student/faculty ratio and faculty awards as well as support for research.
“Our college continues to reach new heights of excellence in graduate teaching, research, and outreach,” said Dean Jean K. Quam. “We are focused on improving the lives of students across Minnesota, the nation, and the world.”
As a Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Carlson will receive a $100,000 grant for research and scholarly activities, and carry the title throughout her University career. Carlson is one of six University professors receiving the award in 2017. Three CEHD professors have earned the award previously, including Frank Symons of educational psychology, and Megan Gunnar and Ann Masten, both in the Institute of Child Development.
Through her research, Carlson has developed innovative ways of measuring executive function – or the set of skills that helps individuals pay attention, control impulses and think flexibly – in very young children. She has also made discoveries about the role of executive function in other aspects of human development, including decision-making and creativity.
Her accomplishments include co-developing the Minnesota Executive Function Scale (MEFS), a testing app that measures executive function and early learning readiness in children. The MEFS is the only early learning readiness assessment measuring executive function that can be used with children as young as two years old. To help put the tool in the hands of early educators, she co-founded the tech start-up Reflection Sciences and now serves as its CEO.
“Stephanie Carlson not only has conducted ground-breaking research that has advanced the field of cognitive development, but she also has developed practical tools for early educators,” said CEHD Dean Jean Quam. “She is an engaged professor, researcher and mentor to her students, and an outstanding asset to the college.”
Carlson and the other winners of this year’s Distinguished McKnight University Professorships will be recognized at the May Board of Regents meeting and honored at a celebratory dinner.
The fellowship provides recipients with the opportunity to study and research with faculty at one interdisciplinary research center of their choice. The award includes a stipend of $25,000 for the academic year, tuition for up to 14 graduate credits each semester, and subsidized health insurance through the Graduate Assistant Health Plan.
Along with an inscribed plaque, Low will receive a scholarship of $500 and up to $250 in travel/ research funds. Below, Low discusses how she developed an interest in child psychology and her post-graduation plans.
What made you want to study child psychology?
I came across the child psychology major by chance. While applying to transfer to the University of Minnesota, I was unsure of what I wanted to major in and as I was filling out my application, I chanced upon the major. I knew that I wanted to continue pursuing something related to the field of psychology or the social sciences and that I wanted to work with children. Looking back, this decision has been one filled with great reward and tremendous challenge, but it is something that I don’t regret.
What kind of research are you involved in?
As an undergraduate research assistant in the CDN Lab, I investigated the role of early experience in brain development. As part of an independent study, I have developed a coding scheme, with the assistance of Dr. Thomas, to examine attentional strategies used by preschool children to regulate their emotions. I also have worked with ICD Associate Professor Melissa Koenig, Ph.D., in the Early Language and Experience Lab (ELEL), where I examined how preschool children reason about the intentions and actions of people. Currently, I am assisting Dr. Thomas in a separate study examining social and emotional development in children who have had a hemipherectomy (half of their brain removed).
What do you find most interesting about child development?
You can never have two children who are exactly alike. Child development is continuously affected by biological factors, environmental factors, and even an amalgamation and interaction of both. I find it interesting how even under similar conditions, two children will be different from one another, especially in the research area I am interested in, emotional development, whereby children may use similar strategies for regulation.
What are your plans after graduation?
My coursework, clinical experience and research experiences have inspired me to attend graduate school in developmental psychology. I have received numerous opportunities to study cognitive development in children, but still continue to find it intriguing, especially in its relation to emotional development. Ultimately, I hope to attend graduate school to attain the skills necessary for a career as a qualified and inquisitive developmental researcher and to continue to contribute and create greater awareness and understanding of child development.
Maria D. Sera, Ph.D., professor and director of undergraduate studies in the Institute of Child Development, contributed to a recent National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on promoting the educational success of children and youth who are learning English.
Sera served on a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee that examined how research on the development of English learners could inform policy and improve educational outcomes. Sera’s research focuses on the relation between language and cognitive development and on the learning of second languages by children and adults.
The committee’s report, which was released on Feb. 28, highlighted key research, identified effective practices for educators, and made recommendations for how policymakers can support children and youth who are learning English. It looked at two groups of children and youth: dual language learners, or children ages birth to 5 who are learning two languages and are not enrolled in school, and English learners, who are enrolled in the pre-K-12 education system and are learning English as a second language. Most English learners are born in the U.S. and are U.S. citizens.
The report found that English learners, who account for more than 9 percent of K-12 enrollment in the U.S., face barriers to academic success, as schools often do not provide adequate instruction or resources to support acquiring English proficiency. According to the report, early care and education providers, teachers, and administrators do not receive appropriate training to foster desired educational outcomes for children and youth learning English.
The report also discussed capacities and influences on language development, including that children have the capacity to learn two languages from birth if they are given adequate input in each. It noted that speaking to children in a different language at home will not hurt a child’s ability to learn English and that having strong skills in a home language can help children learn a second language.
Overall, the report made 10 recommendations to government agencies at all levels to improve educational outcomes. For example, the report recommended that agencies that oversee early care and education programs provide specific evidence-based program guidance for serving dual language learners and their families. The report also recommended that agencies conduct marketing campaigns to provide information about the capacity of children to learn more than one language.
The study was sponsored by the U.S. departments of Education and Health and Human Services, the Foundation for Child Development, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the McKnight Foundation.
The NAEd aims to advance high-quality education research and its use in policy and practice. The academy consists of 209 U.S. members and 11 foreign associates who are elected on the basis of outstanding scholarship related to education. Gunnar was one of 14 new members elected to membership this year.
As an NAEd member, Gunnar will play a role in NAEd’s professional development programs and serve on expert study panels that address pressing issues in education.
Gunnar will be inducted during a ceremony for new members at the 2017 NAEd Annual Meeting in November.
The conference, which will take place on Thursday, March 9, will consist of training sessions and workshops that aim to foster a dialogue about how the university can strengthen human research protections. The morning portion of the conference will focus on informed consent, with afternoon sessions covering a variety of topics, including partnering with community members and managing conflicts of interest.
As part of the morning portion of the program, Gunnar is scheduled to moderate a panel at 9:30 a.m. that will discuss frontier issues in seeking pediatric or adolescent assent and parent or guardian permission.
The MEFS is a testing app that early educators can use to measure executive function (EF) and early learning readiness in children. It is the only early learning readiness assessment measuring executive function that can be used with children as young as two years old. The MEFS was developed by Institute of Child Development Professors Stephanie Carlson, Ph.D., and Philip Zelazo, Ph.D., who started Reflection Sciences.
“Executive function skills are vital for children’s school readiness and later achievement, and we now have a way to quickly and validly measure EF against national and local norms,” Carlson says. “We are delighted to be collaborating with CEED, the state’s premier training organization for public and private early education providers, to help others learn to use the MEFS in their organizations.”
“Early educators who are looking for new, effective ways to promote children’s learning and social skills will appreciate the ease of using the MEFS,” says Amy Susman-Stillman, Ph.D., a research associate at CEED. “It provides information about children’s development that no other assessment tool does and makes it simpler to understand a child’s individual needs.”
Mirror- touch synesthesia (MTS) is a condition that allows individuals to experience the same sensation that another person feels.
For the research, conducted at the University of Delaware, DePasquale led a screening process involving 2,351 undergraduate students. Each student was shown videos of hands being touched and then asked if they could feel anything, where the touch was felt, and the strength of the sensation. Of the students screened, 45 were found to have MTS.
“When I would debrief them, many would tell me about sensations they felt while watching movies,” DePasquale says. “It was almost as if they were a part of the movie—feeling touch, pain and other physical sensations that the characters were experiencing.”
Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in infants with older siblings with autism, researchers from around the country, including the University of Minnesota (UMN), were able to predict which infants would later meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at two years of age, with 80 percent accuracy.
“The findings lay the foundation for the field to move toward attempting to implement interventions before the symptoms that define autism consolidate into a diagnosis,” said study co-author Jed Elison, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the UMN Institute of Child Development.
“Typically, the earliest an autism diagnosis can be made is between ages two and three. But for babies with older autistic siblings, our imaging approach may help predict during the first year of life which babies are most likely to receive an autism diagnosis at 24 months,” said senior author Joseph Piven, M.D., the Thomas E. Castelloe Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
This research project included hundreds of children from across the country and was led by researchers at the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD) at the University of North Carolina (UNC). The project’s other clinical sites included the University of Washington, Washington University in St. Louis, and The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. In addition to the University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development, other key collaborators are McGill University, the University of Alberta, the College of Charleston, and New York University (see ibisnetwork.org for more information.)
For this study, published today in Nature, the team of researchers conducted MRI scans of infants at six, 12 and 24 months of age. They found that the babies who developed autism experienced a hyper-expansion of brain surface area from six to 12 months, as compared to babies who had an older sibling with autism but did not themselves show evidence of the condition at 24 months of age. Increased growth rate of surface area in the first year of life was linked to increased growth rate of overall brain volume in the second year of life. Brain overgrowth was tied to the emergence of autistic social deficits in the second year.
The researchers then took these data – MRIs of brain volume, surface area, cortical thickness at 6 and 12 months of age, and sex of the infants – and used a computer program to identify a way to classify babies most likely to meet criteria for autism at 24 months of age. The computer program developed the best algorithm to accomplish this, and the researchers applied the algorithm to a separate set of study participants.
The researchers found that brain differences at 6 and 12 months of age in infants with older siblings with autism correctly predicted eight out of 10 infants who would later meet criteria for autism at 24 months of age in comparison to those infants with older ASD siblings who did not meet criteria for autism at 24 months.
According to the researchers, the findings may have implications for early detection and intervention in children who have older siblings with autism before a diagnosis is typically established. Diagnosis of ASD typically occurs after 24 months of age, the earliest time when behavioral characteristics of ASD can be observed. Intervening early could lead to improved outcomes, as the brain is more malleable in the first years of life compared with later in childhood.
“This area of research is incredibly exciting because it provides an opportunity to understand how autism unfolds early in life,” said Jason Wolff, Ph.D., an assistant professor in educational psychology at UMN and a study co-author. “It provides new clues about the timing and specific mechanisms of brain development that precede a diagnosis. It also offers the unprecedented possibility of predicting whether or not a child will develop autism based on neurobiological data.”
“These findings not only are significant for the field of autism, but they also could inform the broader field of psychiatry and prevention science as it relates to various psychiatric conditions,” Elison said. “This research highlights the best of contemporary science. It’s collaborative, and informed by technology and multiple areas of expertise, with the common goal of helping families.”
The National Institutes of Health funded this study.
The piece discussed empirical evidence around the issues of race, poverty, intergenerational mobility, and the opportunity and achievement gaps. For a 2015 study, Roisman and colleagues examined “racially disparate conditions,” such as family income, maternal education, and learning materials in the home, as well as child birth order and child birth weight. They found that such conditions “can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores.”
The Masten Lab at the Institute of Child Development is seeking a Research Assistant to help with a positiveemotion coding project. The position is available immediately and open to students in any major. While this is an unpaid position, we can definitely work with you to get research credit or Honors experience for this position.
Research Activities: The project investigates how expressions of joy, pride, happiness and pleasure during a self-motivated magnetic fishing game is related to positive outcomes.
The RA will be asked to watch the videos of young children engaging in a life-size magnetic fishing game on their own. Every 15 seconds, they will code the child’s face, voice, and body on intensity of positiveemotion using a detailed coding manual. This is an advanced coding system, and you will receive training on the coding process in order to achieve reliability with the anchor coder, as well as ongoing support throughout the project. Your input into how the coding process can be modified and improved will also be encouraged.
This position may be of particular interest to individuals interested in going to graduate school in the field of psychology and seeking to gain research experience.
Previous research experience is a plus. However, we are primarily seeking individuals who are interested to learn about this topic area and have a strong attention to detail.
We are flexible about hours per week (usually RAs choose to work anywhere from 3 to 10 hours per week) and anticipate there will be a total of around 35 to 50 hours of coding and work overall from start to finish.
Please send the following:
b. Unofficial Transcript (can be downloaded for free at Onestop)
c. 1-2 paragraphs explaining why you are interested in this position
In the e-mail Subject Line, please write “Application for PositiveEmotion Project.”
Send this material to Jyothi Ramakrishnan at firstname.lastname@example.org. Also, feel free to e-mail me any questions you might have prior to applying!
AchieveMPLS is a non-profit partner of Minneapolis Public Schools that focuses on career and college readiness for students in Minneapolis. Their EDTalks aim to call attention to a wide range of issues impacting public education.
During her EDTalk, Gunnar emphasized the importance of fostering healthy child development and discussed ways to ensure that children grow and live in healthy environments.
“If we work together, we can think of a comprehensive set of plans across the community to work on over the years to create the kind of context we want for our communities, for the families and children there, so that we will all have a bright future,” Gunnar said.
The Tri-Psychology Programs—Institute of Child Development, Psychology, and Educational Psychology—at the University of Minnesota are deeply committed to supporting underrepresented students in the psychological sciences. Together, we strive to create welcoming, affirming, and inclusive spaces and seek to foster respectful exchanges of ideas that allow us to embrace the power of diversity of perspectives and backgrounds to enrich us all.
Toward this end, we invite applications for the 2016-17 Tri-Psych Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Student Fund. The goal of this award is to build community and facilitate cross-departmental collaborations among tri-psych students from traditionally underrepresented groups. For this award, underrepresentation is defined as groups who have been traditionally underrepresented in postsecondary education through their race, culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, disability, religious affiliation, and socioeconomic status.
We seek innovative proposals that build community for underrepresented students, provide opportunities to encourage and support your fellow students, and build stronger collaborations across departments.