Category Archives: Research

CEHD researchers use brain scans to predict autism in high-risk, 6-month-old infants

L-R: Jed Elison, Jason Wolff

College of Education and Human Development researchers contributed to a new study that suggests that patterns of brain activity in high-risk, 6-month-old babies may accurately predict which of them will develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at age 2.

The new study was published in Science Translational Medicine and led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Jed Elison, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Institute of Child Development, and Jason Wolff, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Psychology, were study co-authors. The study was conducted by the IBIS Network and funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Approximately one out of 68 school-aged children in the U.S. has a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, and their younger siblings are at a higher risk of developing the condition. “These findings need to be replicated, but that said, we are very excited about the potential to leverage cutting edge technology to advance the search for the earliest signs of autism,” Elison said.

For the study, researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the brain’s functional connectivity – or how different brain regions work together – in high-risk, 6-month-old infants. The infants were considered high-risk because they have an older sibling with autism. Overall, 59 high-risk infants were included in the study. Eleven of the infants were diagnosed with ASD at 2 years old and 48 were not.

The researchers applied machine learning algorithms to the infants’ brain scans to identify patterns that separated them into the two groups. They then applied the algorithm to each of the infants to predict which infants would later be diagnosed with ASD. The algorithm correctly predicted nine of the 11 infants who were later diagnosed with ASD and all 48 of the infants who were not later diagnosed with the condition.

According to the researchers, if replicated, the results could provide a clinically valuable tool for detecting ASD in high-risk infants before symptoms set in. This in turn would allow researchers to test the effectiveness of interventions on a population of high-risk infants who have been identified as having a greater risk of ASD based on their brain scan at 6 months of age.

“The researchers will now try to confirm their findings in larger groups of children. But they already have provided proof of principle that it’s possible to detect ASD long before children show the first visible signs of the condition,” NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D., wrote in a blog about the study. “The findings could pave the way for developing more cost-effective mobile neuroimaging tools, which might be used in early ASD screening.”

In February 2017, Elison and Wolff contributed to a separate study that used MRI scans of high-risk infants conducted at 6 and 12 months of age to accurately predict which infants would later meet criteria for ASD at age 2. The method used in the new study would only require one scan at 6 months of age.

“This is really interdisciplinary science at its very best, and I anticipate it will eventually lead to improved outcomes for children and families,” Wolff said. “The ability to predict autism in infancy opens the door for something that has long been improbable: pre-symptomatic intervention.”

Elsevier Connect features students’ article on effects of school sport participation on academic, social functioning

Minnesota Youth Development Research Group (MYDRG) members. Top (L-R): Carlos Chavez, Wei Song, Jose Palma, Kory Vue, and Rik Lamm. Bottom (L-R): Mireya Smith, Michael Rodriguez, Youngsoon Kang and Özge Erşan

Recently, Elsevier Connect highlighted research conducted by students in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota. The article, “The effects of participation in school sports on academic and social functioning,” was one of three featured in the piece, “Thriving or surviving? Taking a wide angle on mental health.”1 According to the Elsevier Connect, this free article collection explored what’s behind good mental health for Mental Health Awareness Week.

The study

The students examined 2010 Minnesota Student Survey data and found 12th graders who participated in sports had higher GPAs, more favorable perceptions of school safety, and increased perceptions of family and teacher/community support. Psychological foundations of education student (now alumni), Martin Van Boekel, led the project. Quantitative methods in education students, Luke Stanke, Jose R. Palma Zamora, Yoojeong Jang, Youngsoon Kang, and Kyle Nickodem collaborated with Van Boekel on the study. Okan Bulut, assistant professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and member of the Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation (CRAME) at the University of Alberta, helped guide the students’ work. 

The Minnesota Youth Development Research Group

The researchers met and began work on the project through the Minnesota Youth Development Research Group (MYDRG) which is led by Michael Rodriguez, Campbell Leadership Chair in Education and Human Development and professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota. MYDRG explores methodological and substantive challenges in youth development through positive psychology, ecological perspectives of youth development, and the translation of research to practice.

More information

Read the Elsevier Connect piece.

Read the full study, “The effects of participation in school sports on academic and social functioning.”

  1. Van Boekel, Martin, Bulut, Okan, Stanke, Luke, Palma Zamora, Jose R., Jang, Yoojeong, Kang, Youngsoon, Nickodem, Kyle. (2017). The effects of participation in school sports on academic and social functioning. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 46, September–October 2016, 31–40. doi: /10.1016/j.appdev.2016.05.002

Jitendra: Creating better strategies for teaching math word problems

Asha Jitendra

Asha Jitendra, professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s special education program recently authored an article in CEHD Vision 20:20 about her work with schema-based instruction, which teaches students to focus on the underlying structure of math word problems.

I became interested in looking for better ways to teach math problems because of my daughter, who suffered brain damage in early childhood which inhibited her development of language skills. Despite this delay in developing language, she showed great understanding of mathematical concepts at an early age…However, she continued to have a difficult time solving math word problems,” says Jitendra.

Read the full article.

KARE 11 asks Jason Wolff: ‘Do vaccines cause autism?’

Jason Wolff

In a recent interview with KARE 11 News reporter Kent Ehrdahl, Jason Wolff, assistant professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s special education program and coordinator for the autism spectrum disorder certificate program, was asked, “Do vaccines cause autism?”

“I can’t really think of something that we’ve delved into more than this to settle it,” Wolff told Ehrdahl. “There are well over 100 studies that have shown there is no link between vaccines and autism, and they’ve looked at every possible side of that issue, and they’ve found nothing time and time again.”

Wolff went on to cite his recent research on the development of autism spectrum disorder with assistant professor Jed Elison from the Institute of Child Development and other colleagues across the country.

“We found that the brain is changing in autism, probably before six months of age, and certainly by six months of age,” Wolff explained. “This is well before children are receiving a lot of their vaccines…. autism develops slowly over time, probably starts in utero.”

Watch the full KARE 11 News segment.

CEHD research on the development of autism featured in Spectrum

L-R: Jed Elison, Jason Wolff

Jason Wolff, assistant professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s special education program, was recently featured in a Spectrum article about his research using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in infants whose older siblings have autism. Wolff worked with a national team of researchers, including Jed Elison from the Institute for Child Development, on the study. Wolff and colleagues found that the development of specific brain circuits may predict the severity of repetitive and sensory behaviors in infants who later develop autism.

In the article, Spectrum explains, “repetitive behaviors, such as hand flapping, are a cardinal sign of autism”, and “children with these severe repetitive behaviors often also have unusual sensory features, such as sensitivities to sounds or textures or an insensitivity to pain.”

Wolff expands on this. “They both (repetitive behaviors and unusual sensory features) seem to share a similar relationship with underlying neural circuitry,” he says.

Read the full article.

Special ed Ph.D. students named CEC Division for Research Student Scholars

Jaeyhun Shin and Gena Nelson, Ph.D. students in the Department of Educational Psychology’s special education program, have been selected to participate in the Doctoral Student Scholars program on behalf of the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC – DR) Division of Research. Shin and Nelson were  chosen through a competitive process, including participating in virtual seminars and online discussions during the school year.

The two students participated in a colloquium at the CEC conference on April 21 in Boston and were recognized that afternoon during the DR business meeting.

Designed to foster connections among students at different universities and contribute to raising the standard of research in the field, DRDSS aims to answer, “What makes for excellence in special education research?”

Learn more about CEC-DR.

Ed Psych research on debunking misinformation around autism featured in Connect

Panayiota Kendeou, associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s psychological foundations of education program, Veronica Fleury, assistant professor in the special education program, and postdoctoral fellow Gregory Trevors were recently featured in a CE+HD Connect article, “Debunking Misinformation.”

The article summarizes findings from the Global Signature program and how Department of Educational Psychology researchers are working to cut through misconceptions about the causes and treatments of autism spectrum disorder.  

In the article, Fleury explains that autism was a prime topic to research because there is so much misinformation about what causes it and about the best treatments for families, schools, and communities.

“Autism tends to be a fad magnet. People use a variety of strategies that don’t have a strong research base—in fact, we have research to refute their effectiveness—yet they still have a strong hold,” says Fleury.

According to Connect in an age of misinformation and fake news, Fleury, Kendeou, and Trevors’ work has gained urgency.

“You cannot really erase and replace misconceptions that people have acquired. That’s the sad story about misinformation,” Kendeou told Connect. “We want to reduce its impact, not change people’s beliefs.”
Read the full article.

Ed Psych researchers present on misinformation surrounding ASD

Despite the facts, people across the world hold different beliefs about what causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD). On March 31, faculty and researchers from the Department of Educational Psychology shared findings from a recent “glocal” (locally based with global components) study on the misinformation that surrounds ASD.

Panayiota Kendeou, Guy Bond Chair in Reading and associate professor in the psychological foundations of education program, kicked off the event with an introduction into the cognitive theory behind “Reducing the Impact of Misinformation around ASD.” She explained the misinformation effect and her Knowledge Revision Components Framework (KrEC) which examines the incremental steps of knowledge revision.Watch Kendeou’s presentation.

Gregory Trevors, post-doctoral fellow in the psychological foundations of education program, provided additional background, presenting local and global data from the study on “The Public’s Prior Knowledge about the Causes of ASD and its Relations to Treatment Recommendation.” Watch Trevor’s presentation.

Veronica Fleury, assistant professor and ASD licensure & M.Ed. coordinator in the special education program, presented findings from the local portion of the study conducted at the Minnesota State fair, specifically examining “The Impact of (source) Credibility on Treatment Recommendations.” Watch Fleury’s presentation.

Finally, Krista Muis, associate professor in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology at McGill University, provided an outside perspective on why the Global Signature Program is important. Muis, who studies how individuals process complex, contradictory content on socio-scientific issues such as vaccinations, noted the strengths of the research project. She also posed a few questions about the local portion of study and provided recommendations for future global research on the topic. Watch Muis’ presentation.

The event ended with a discussion that will help inform the content for future coursework, including a study abroad course focused on understanding ASD with an emphasis on debunking global misinformation.

The signature program is funded by the Office of International Initiatives and Relations at the College of Education and Human Development (CEHD).

  1. Kendeou, P., & O’Brien, E. J. (2014). The Knowledge Revision Components (KReC) Framework: Processes and Mechanisms. In D. Rapp, & J. Braasch (Eds.), Processing Inaccurate Information: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives from Cognitive Science and the Educational Sciences Cambridge: MIT.

Kendeou presents at Northwestern University on debunking misinformation

Panayiota Kendeou

Panayiota (Pani) Kendeou, associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Guy Bond Chair in Reading, recently presented to the Multi-disciplinary Program in Learning Sciences at Northwestern University on the “Science of Debunking Misinformation.”

In the talk, Kendeou discussed a series of studies that examine the incremental steps of knowledge revision, detailing its time course and mechanisms during reading comprehension in the context of the Knowledge Revision Components framework (KReC).1 She explained how KReC—which she developed with Professor Edward J O’Brien at the University of New Hampshire—aligns itself nicely with knowledge revision in the context of reading comprehension and has implications for research in text comprehension, conceptual change, persuasion, and the misinformation effect.

Get more information on Kendeou’s research by visiting her Reading & Language Lab.

  1. Kendeou, P., & O’Brien, E. J. (2014). The Knowledge Revision Components (KReC) Framework: Processes and Mechanisms. In D. Rapp, & J. Braasch (Eds.), Processing Inaccurate Information: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives from Cognitive Science and the Educational Sciences Cambridge: MIT.

Kincade named finalist in CEHD 3-Minute Thesis competition

Laurie Kincade, a Ph.D. student in the Department of Educational Psychology’s school psychology program,  will be competing with seven doctoral students from across the college in this year’s 3-Minute Thesis (3MT). Kincade’s thesis focuses on “The Impact of the Student-Teacher Relationship for English Language Learners.” The event takes place March 28 from 10-11 a.m. in McNamara Alumni Center’s Johnson Room. First prize is a $300 award, and prizes of $250 will go to the runner-up and people’s choice. The finalists were chosen from a preliminary round competition held last week.

3MT is an annual competition held in over 200 universities worldwide. It’s designed to challenge Ph.D. students to present their research in just three minutes in an engaging format that can be understood by an audience with no background in their discipline. The competition is intended to help students develop a presentation on their research and hone their academic communication skills to explain their work effectively to a general audience.

Judges in the CEHD competition are Karen Kaler, University Associate; Mary Tjosovold, local entrepreneur, author, and humanitarian, and CEHD alumna; and Dr. John Wright, professor of African-American and African Studies in the College of Liberal Arts.

Psych Foundations undergraduate researchers to train with AERA

Two undergraduate students conducting research with Department of Educational Psychology faculty members in the psychological foundations of education program have been invited to participate in an Undergraduate Student Education Research Training Workshop put on by the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

  • Drake Bauer is an undergraduate student majoring in life sciences and psychology. Bauer works with two psychological foundations of education faculty members, Sashank Varma in the Cognitive Architecture Lab and Keisha Varma in the STEM Thinking, Reasoning, & Learning Lab.
  • Nikita Salovich, an undergraduate majoring in psychology, works with Panayiota Kendeou—also a faculty member in psychological foundations of education—in the Reading & Language Lab.

Bauer and Salovich will attend the AERA workshop, April 27-29 in San Antonio, Texas. This workshop, led by early career and senior scholars, will give the students an overview of how education research is designed across disciplines, how quantitative and qualitative research methods are used in studies, and how research is applied to education policy and practice. Bauer and Salovich were selected for the workshop based on their strong academic performance, research skills and experience, and potential to contribute to the education research field.

The AERA Undergraduate Student Education Research Training Workshop is part of the 2017 AERA Annual Meeting. Leading researchers and scholars provide guidance to undergraduates as they learn about research. Attendees participate in focused lectures and discussions about education research and attend some general Annual Meeting activities.

Students present research at 2017 GSRD

The 17th Annual Educational Psychology Graduate Student Research Day (GSRD) was held on March 3, 2017 to celebrate outstanding student accomplishments. The annual event provides a format for graduate students to present their research and to be recognized by peers and faculty.

The presentations took place in the Mississippi Room in Coffman Memorial Union and featured presentations by six students on their research papers and 34 posters on display with students available for Q&A sessions. Faculty and peers were able to walk around and learn more about the variety of research taking place within the department.

GSRD is a well-attended and well-recognized event at the University of Minnesota and the Department of Educational Psychology continues to be pleased with the excellent work students produce on their research accomplishments.

Varma, student present research on the origins of numerical abilities to Royal Society

Sashank Varma, associate professor and coordinator for the Department of Educational Psychology’s psychological foundations of education program, and doctoral student, Soo-hyun Im, recently traveled to London for the Royal Society Meeting on the Origins of Numerical Abilities, a scientific discussion about how when humans acquire numerical competence, we build upon an inherited cognitive foundation. At the meeting, Varma and Im presented their research projects entitled Mathematical insight predicts mathematical achievement in college students1 and From number sense to arithmetic sense: A theoretical and empirical synthesis.2

Co-authors of Mathematical insight predicts mathematical achievement include: Purav Patel, a doctoral student in psychological foundations of education and Rachel Voit, a Macalester College student at the time of data collection and now a masters student in social work.

The Royal Society is a fellowship of many of the world’s most eminent scientists and is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence.

  1.  Varma, S., Voit, R., Im, S.-h., & Patel, P. J. (2017, February). Mathematical insight predicts mathematical achievement in college students. Poster presented at the Royal Society Meeting on The Origins of Numerical Abilities, London, UK.
  1. Im, S.-h., & Varma, S. (2017, February). From number sense to arithmetic sense: A theoretical and empirical synthesis. Poster presented at the Royal Society Meeting on The Origins of Numerical Abilities, London, UK.

Codding, colleagues honored for article on frequency of math interventions

Robin Codding headshot
Robin Codding

Robin Codding, associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s school psychology program, and her co-authors on the paper “Manipulating Treatment Dose: Evaluating the Frequency of a Small Group Intervention Targeting Whole Number Operations,” are being honored with a Samuel A. Kirk Award by Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (LDRP).

The Samuel A. Kirk Award is overseen by the Division for Learning Disabilities (DLD’s) Publications Committee, is given occasionally, and recognizes excellence in professional journal articles that have been published in LDRP.

The paper examined treatment dose of small-group mathematics interventions, comparing the frequency with which these interventions were delivered weekly (i.e., four times, twice, once) with a control condition while controlling for total duration. Results suggested that for the most proximal computation measure, treatment sessions occurring four times weekly produced clear benefits. On the application measure, students in all treatment groups outperformed students in the control condition. For the most complex computation measure, frequency was not a useful predictor. Grade was a moderating variable.

Codding and her co-authors will receive their award at the Special Education Convention & Expo, April 19-22 in Boston, MA.

Wolff, Elison part of team identifying autism biomarkers in infancy

Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in infants with older siblings with autism, researchers from around the country, including the University of Minnesota (UMN), were able to predict which infants would later meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at two years of age, with 80 percent accuracy.

Jed Elison, Ph.D. and Jason Wolff, Ph.D.

“This area of research is incredibly exciting because it provides an opportunity to understand how autism unfolds early in life,” said Jason Wolff, Ph.D., an assistant professor in educational psychology at UMN and a study co-author. “It provides new clues about the timing and specific mechanisms of brain development that precede a diagnosis. It also offers the unprecedented possibility of predicting whether or not a child will develop autism based on neurobiological data.”

“Typically, the earliest an autism diagnosis can be made is between ages two and three. But for babies with older autistic siblings, our imaging approach may help predict during the first year of life which babies are most likely to receive an autism diagnosis at 24 months,” said senior author Joseph Piven, M.D., the Thomas E. Castelloe Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

This research project included hundreds of children from across the country and was led by researchers at the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD) at the University of North Carolina (UNC). The project’s other clinical sites included the University of Washington, Washington University in St. Louis, and The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. In addition to the University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development, other key collaborators are McGill University, the University of Alberta, the College of Charleston, and New York University (see ibisnetwork.org for more information.)

For this study, published today in Nature, the team of researchers conducted MRI scans of infants at six, 12 and 24 months of age. They found that the babies who developed autism experienced a hyper-expansion of brain surface area from six to 12 months, as compared to babies who had an older sibling with autism but did not themselves show evidence of the condition at 24 months of age. Increased growth rate of surface area in the first year of life was linked to increased growth rate of overall brain volume in the second year of life. Brain overgrowth was tied to the emergence of autistic social deficits in the second year.

The researchers then took these data – MRIs of brain volume, surface area, cortical thickness at 6 and 12 months of age, and sex of the infants – and used a computer program to identify a way to classify babies most likely to meet criteria for autism at 24 months of age. The computer program developed the best algorithm to accomplish this, and the researchers applied the algorithm to a separate set of study participants.

The researchers found that brain differences at 6 and 12 months of age in infants with older siblings with autism correctly predicted eight out of 10 infants who would later meet criteria for autism at 24 months of age in comparison to those infants with older ASD siblings who did not meet criteria for autism at 24 months.

According to the researchers, the findings may have implications for early detection and intervention in children who have older siblings with autism before a diagnosis is typically established. Diagnosis of ASD typically occurs after 24 months of age, the earliest time when behavioral characteristics of ASD can be observed. Intervening early could lead to improved outcomes, as the brain is more malleable in the first years of life compared with later in childhood.

“The findings lay the foundation for the field to move toward attempting to implement interventions before the symptoms that define autism consolidate into a diagnosis,” said study co-author Jed Elison, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the UMN Institute of Child Development.

“Much of what we do as a field to help individuals with autism is reactive,” Wolff said. “We wait for children to fall behind before providing an intervention. We may now be able to find ways to prevent that from ever happening.”

The National Institutes of Health funded this study.

See media coverage of this story in the Star Tribune, Minnesota Public Radio, KARE TV, WCCO TV, and KMSP TV.

Sullivan helps MAP Equity Assistance Center provide schools with professional development, technical assistance

Amanda Sullivan

Amanda Sullivan, associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s school psychology program, is one of several Equity Fellows assisting the new Midwest and Plans (MAP) Equity Assistance Center in providing professional development and technical assistance to regional school systems.

The MAP Center was recently awarded a five year grant by the U.S. Department of Education to assist with desegregation and other civil rights issues in public schools in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

Sullivan will contribute to the development of MAP products and services to facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate multitier systems of support for students’ academic, social-emotional, and behavioral development.

“I’m excited to partner with the MAP Center to support schools’ efforts to create equitable systems and support the learning and wellbeing of all learners,” she says. “This is as important now as it’s ever been and with the MAP center, we have a great opportunity to develop tools tailored to our local communities.”

Trevors’ research mentioned in “Learning from Donald Trump’s new rules”

Dr. Gregory Trevors

Dr. Gregory Trevors, post doctoral fellow in the Department of Educational Psychology’s psychological foundations of education program and the Reading & Language Lab, was recently mentioned the Globe and Mail article, “Learning from Donald Trump’s new rules.” The article argues, “while leaders in the political arena and outside have followed certain time-honored rules for handling controversy and scandals… Trump has not” and shares five “new rules” based on his behavior.

Specifically in Rule 3 of the article, “Persuading people with facts may not work,” Globe and Mail argues that “facts failed to stop” Trump from winning the presidency. The publication supports this argument with Trevors’ research on how new information can threaten its recipients’ sense of identity. Originally covered by the British Psychological Research Society’s Digest, Trevors’ research shows that new information can trigger negative emotions, which impair the understanding and digestion of written information.

Learn more about research being done in the Reading & Language Lab.

Kendeou presents at symposium on reducing impact of misinformation, fake news

Dr. Panayiota Kendeou

Panayiota Kendeou, associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s Psychological Foundations of Education program, recently traveled to Sydney, Australia, to present her work on the 12th biennial meeting of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC). Kendeou was part of a featured symposium–organized by two world-renowned experts on misinformation,  Ullrich Ecker (The University of Western Australia) and Stephan Lewandowsky (University of Bristol)–on research advances that reduce the impact of misinformation and fake news. At the event, Kendeou presented her work on the conditions that promote successful change of pre-existing beliefs in the context of her Knowledge Revision Components framework (KReC; Kendeou & O’Brien, 2014).

Dedicated to encouraging and promoting quality scientific research in applied domains, the SARMAC’s purpose is to enhance collaboration and co-operation between basic and applied researchers in memory and cognition.

Learn more about this and other work conducted in Kendeou’s Reading & Language lab.

Christ’s CBM of oral reading article named one of five most cited in Journal of School Psychology

Dr. Theodore J. Christ

Theodore J. Christ, director of CAREI and professor in the Department of Educational Psychology’s school psychology program, was recently recognized by the editors of the Journal of School Psychology for a paper he and his students published in 2013. The article, “Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading: Multi-study evaluation of schedule, duration, and dataset quality on progress monitoring outcomes,” was named one of the top five most cited works in the Journal of School Psychology in 2014, 2015, and 2016.

View the award by the Journal of School Psychology

Psych foundations students to present at annual AERA meeting

Psychological foundations of education students, Kelsey Will, Reese Butterfuss, Bader Moshen, and Nic VanMeerten—as well as post-doctoral researcher Gregory Trevors—will present at the 2017 American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting April 27-May 1. The theme of this year’s event is Achieving the Promise of Equal Educational Opportunity. Presentation topics will include:

  • “Reducing Interference from Misconceptions: The Role of Inhibition in Knowledge Revision,” Reese Butterfuss
  • “Exploring Student Engagement in an Augmented Reality Game,” Nic VanMeerten
  • “The Role of Quality Explanations in Knowledge Revision,” Kelsey Will
  • “Refuting vaccine misconceptions,” Gregory Trevors

Learn more about AERA’s Annual Meeting.