Category Archives: CASCW

CEHD Alumni Society recognizes outstanding alums

SONY DSCL-R: Brenda Hartman, alumni society president (B.S. ’81, M.S.W. ’89), Marvin Davis (M.S.W. ’97), Halil Dundar (M.A. ’90, Ph.D. ’93), Peg Lonnquist (Ph.D. ’95), Jon Ruzek, director of alumni relations
On November 21, 2013, the CEHD Alumni Society honored three exceptional alumni as part of the college’s annual Distinguished Alumni Awards ceremony.
Halil Dundar received the CEHD Distinguished International Alumni Award. Since 1997, this award has recognized outstanding achievements of international CEHD alumni, from master’s and doctoral programs, who have contributed to outstanding educational progress in their countries. Dr. Dundar grew up in a small town in Turkey, graduating from Ankara University on national scholarship. He was then awarded a full scholarship by the Turkish Ministry of Education to study in the United States. He chose the University of Minnesota and completed his master’s and doctoral degrees from the college’s former Department of Educational Policy and Administration, focusing on the economics of higher education. Bringing both diligence and integrity to his work as lead education specialist for The World Bank, Halil has made outstanding contributions to educational progress in Turkey and developing countries in the former Soviet Union, Asian republics, Eastern Europe, and Africa.

Marvin Davis received the CEHD Alumni Society Award of Excellence. Throughout his social work career, Marvin has demonstrated exceptional leadership, holding several important positions at the Minnesota Department of Human Services. He currently coordinates the development and delivery of child welfare training systems designed for county and tribal supervisors, social workers, and resource families. A master of social work graduate from the college’s School of Social Work, Marvin has taken on challenging issues in the field of child welfare, such as engaging with fathers and addressing racial disparities in the system. He’s also worked with the college’s Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare to advocate for a common set of child welfare worker competencies to be adopted for use in educating entry-level practitioners.
Peg Lonnquist was the other recipient of the CEHD Alumni Society Award of Excellence.
Dr. Lonnquist has had, and continues to have, a distinguished career as a social justice educator. A doctoral graduate in educational policy and administration, she has held both faculty and administrative roles at Hamline University, Iowa State University, and currently the University of Minnesota. Peg is director of the University of Minnesota’s Women’s Center, which increases connections for women’s success, cultivates socially responsible leaders, and advocates for organizational culture change. Through her work in education she has diligently advanced the mission of equity for all, while bringing a spirit of collegiality, enthusiasm, and a commitment to growth. Peg has been a formal and informal mentor to countless staff, students, and emerging leaders.
The CEHD Alumni Society’s slate of awards were recently restructured to more broadly recognize the diverse career experiences and professional achievements of our vast alumni body. The Award of Excellence is presented annually to two CEHD alumni, who have at least 15 years of work experience, have demonstrated outstanding achievement and leadership in their profession, served as mentors to others in their field, and shown exceptional volunteer service. In carrying on the Alumni Society’s 45-year old tradition of honoring alumni both in and outside of education, one recipient of the Award of Excellence represents a career in pre-K through 20 educational institutions, and the other recipient represents a career outside of such institutions.
Founded in 1956, the volunteers of the the CEHD Alumni Society have a long record of service to the college and proudly represent over 70,000 living alumni. The Alumni Society has recognized outstanding alumni achievements since 1968.

Dr. Kristine Piescher of CASCW selected as Center for Juvenile Justice Reform’s Featured Fellow

Dr. Kristine Piescher, Director of Research and Evaluation at the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW), was recently selected as the Center for Juvenile Justice Reform’s (CJJR) Featured Fellow.
Dr. Piescher completed CJJR’s Information Sharing Certificate Program in October of 2012. As part of the certificate program, she has been working on a capstone project that will support CASCW’s Minn-LInK project. Minn-LInK is an integrated, cross-system data project that utilizes shared administrative data from state agencies to examine a variety of indicators of well-being for children involved in the child welfare system and children in other at-risk populations.
Learn more about Dr. Piescher’s work and how it ties into the Information Sharing Certificate program here.

CASCW receives National Science Foundation grant for data intensive research on child well-being

The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota School of Social Work has received a competitive grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) that will provide $489,119 over three years to create the capacity for data intensive research through expansion of the Center’s Minn-LInK project.
MinnLinkLogo CROPPEDThe Minn-LInK project, or Minnesota Linking Information for Kids, is an integrated, cross-system data project housed at the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare. Minn-LInK utilizes administrative data from state agencies to examine a variety of indicators of well-being for children involved in the child welfare system and children in other at-risk populations, with an aim of highlighting policy and practice implications and improving services for children.
For example, a recent study examined educational outcomes of children involved in the child welfare system, with a specific focus on children in out-of-home placement, or foster care. This study helped local and state educators and service providers (including the Minnesota Educational Stability Taskforce) better understand the educational experiences of this at-risk population and informed decision-making. Minn-LInK uses data in accordance with data sharing agreements and strict security protocols are in place to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of data.
The NSF grant will allow the Center to expand the infrastructure of Minn-LInK by integrating additional statewide administrative data and developing ready-to-use datasets and tools. It will also fund the creation and piloting of the Minn-LInK Fellowship Program to prepare future researchers for cross-system research on child well-being. Through this grant the Center will be able to organize a community of researchers whose focus is on child well-being.
For more information, visit the Minn-LInK webpage.

Register now for “Deconstructing the Baby Veronica Case: Implications for Working with Fathers in Indian Child Welfare Practice”

The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare, together with the First Nations Repatriation Institute and the Center for Regional and Tribal Child Welfare Studies at the University of Minnesota—Duluth, is co-sponsoring the forum Deconstructing the Baby Veronica Case: Implications for Working with Fathers in Indian Child Welfare Practice on Tuesday, October 29, 2013, at the University of Minnesota McNamara Alumni Center.
Federal and state laws, as well as agency policies and practice, play a significant role in how we work with fathers in Indian child welfare practice. In this forum, speakers and panelists with differing viewpoints will analyze the legal context of the “Baby Veronica” case for a closer look at father involvement. Practice strategies and policy recommendations will be a focal point.
Presenters and panelists include:

  • Judge William Thorne, Utah Court of Appeals
  • Chrissi Nimmo, Assistant Attorney General of the Cherokee Nation
  • Mark Fiddler, Attorney representing the Capobianco Family
  • Erma J. Vizenor, Chairwoman, White Earth Nation
  • Terry Cross, Executive Director of the National Indian Child Welfare Association
  • Esie Leoso, Social Services Director for Bad River Band of Ojibwe, Wisconsin
  • Mary Boo, Assistant Director of North American Council on Adoptable Children
  • Sarah Deer, Assistant Professor of Law at the William Mitchell College of Law

For more information and to register, visit the forum’s webpage.

Minn-LInK brief examines children’s academic performance and exposure to parental intimate partner violence, child maltreatment

Examining the Association of Children’s Academic Performance with Their Exposure to Parental Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment is the newest brief from Minn-LInK (Minnesota-Linking Information for Kids).
The purpose of the study was to “explore[] the association of children’s exposure to parental intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM), as well as combined exposure (IPV-CM), to children’s academic achievement and school attendance over time.” The study was meant to fill a research gap on individual and combined associations of children’s exposure to IPV and/or CM with school success.
Results of the study are consistent with prior research that shows child exposure to both CM and IPV have a negative impact on school success.
View the brief here to learn more about the study and related research. You can also view the supplement to the brief here.

New guidebook provides strategies for creating a permanence-driven child welfare organization

anuguideA new publication from the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) and Anu Family Services provides guidance for creating a permanence-driven child welfare organization.
Creating a Permanence Driven Organization: A Guidebook for Change in Child Welfare outlines processes by which agencies can shift from helping youth to simply survive to helping youth thrive through a permanence-driven framework, using the experiences of Anu Family Services staff. Since 2006, Anu Family Services was able to increase permanence outcomes for youth exiting treatment foster care by 84 percent through implementation of evidence-informed practices, significant cultural and organizational change, and extensive changes in practice.
You can download this free resource here.
Annette Semanchin Jones, MSW, PhD and Traci LaLiberte, MSW, PhD of CASCW and Amelia Franck Meyer, MS, MSW, LISW, APSW of Anu Family Services authored the publication.

Stability, Permanency & Adoption Coordinator JaeRan Kim featured in CEHD Profiles

The College of Education + Human Development (CEHD) at the University of Minnesota regularly features Students, Faculty, and Alumni of CEHD. Recently CEHD featured a staff member from the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW).
JaeRan Kim, MSW is a PhD Candidate at the School of Social Work and the Stability, Permanency and Adoption Coordinator at CASCW. Her profile on CEHD’s Featured People highlights her personal story and how it has influenced her career and research path: “As a Korean adoptee and an active member of the adoptee community, she always knew she would focus her work and research on inter-country adoption.”
At CASCW, JaeRan manages the Permanency and Adoption Competency Certificate (PACC), a certificate program for child welfare and mental health professionals. Her dissertation research focuses on the placement and stability of internationally adopted children with disabilities.
You can read more about JaeRan here.

“Building Power for Babies” explored importance of first 1,000 days of life

Governor Dayton’s Children’s Cabinet, the Science Museum of Minnesota, and the University of Minnesota joined together for Building Power for Babies, an event held at the Science Museum of Minnesota on June 3, 2013. This event explored the importance of the first 1,000 days of life and the critical relationships between experience, environment, families and communities and how those relationships affect the life-long health and optimal achievement of Minnesota’s youngest children. The event was part of Governor Mark Dayton’s Children’s Cabinet’s strategy for improving outcomes for Minnesota’s babies and toddlers.
The event kicked off the Cabinet’s second phase of strategic planning, which is focused on working with partners and parents to create safe, stable nurturing relationships and environments for infants and toddlers. This event was presented by the Science Museum of Minnesota with funding from the National Science Foundation, in association with Governor Dayton’s Children’s Cabinet and the University of Minnesota. The Science Museum’s Wonder Years focuses on important research about optimal brain development and shows the importance of using scientific insights about children to inform public policy decisions.
The Center for Early Education and Development’s (CEED) involvement includes Project for Babies‘ prenatal-to-three state planning group, headed by Jane Kretzmann, and a partnership between CEED and the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW). The CEED/CASCW partnership, coordinated by CEED’s Nikki Kovan and CASCW’s Tracy Crudo, works to translate development science for child welfare audiences and include their voices in the ongoing prenatal-to-three work happening in Minnesota.

CASCW study provides snapshot of youth experiences in private placement settings

In February 2012, the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) in collaboration with the Minnesota Council of Child Caring Agencies (MCCCA) conducted a study to examine adoption disruptions and dissolutions among children in Minnesota’s private-agency out-of-home placements. Preliminary results from this study are now available online.
In conducting this study, CASCW and MCCCA hoped to gain a better understanding of the experiences of children in private out-of-home placements in Minnesota. What is contained in the preliminary results is a side-by-side comparison of data from all residential facilities, group homes, and foster homes that participated in the study.
In sum, there were 938 youth from 34 agencies in the sample.

  • The largest percentages of children were placed by a court order; this was higher in treatment foster homes (74.3% of youths) and lower in residential treatment (16.9%).
  • The average youth from within this study experienced 1 to 2 previous placements.
  • 77.6% never experienced a finalized adoption or pre-adoptive placement.
  • 92% of the youth had a disability/diagnosis.
  • The most frequently diagnosed disorders held across all placement types; these were Disruptive Behavior Disorder, Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Reactive Attachment Disorder.

In-depth analysis of data is ongoing with an anticipated completed report later this year.
For more information on this report, please contact the Principal Investigator for this study, Dr. Traci LaLiberte, at lali0017@umn.edu.

Register for the Permanency and Adoption Competency Certificate program

Registration is now open for the Permanency and Adoption Competency Certificate (PACC) program through the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) at the University of Minnesota’s School of Social Work.
PACC_logoFULL_SMALLThe PACC is geared towards mental health and child welfare professionals in Minnesota interested in increasing their competency in adoption and permanency practice. The 2013–2014 cohorts will be located at the University of Minnesota in the Twin Cities as well as in Brainerd (actual meeting location to be determined).
Schedule of Classes
The program begins in September. Sessions are held every 3 to 4 weeks through June 2014. Monthly case consultations begin in July 2014 and end in January 2015.
Program Structure
There are 13 in-class sessions, 2 online sessions, and 6 post-training clinical case consultation and supervision sessions.
Tuition and Fees
Registration has been lowered to $25. The Minnesota Department of Human Services Child Safety and Permanency Division has provided funding to reduce overall tuition, from $1,800 to just $400 per participant.
For more information and to register, please visit our PACC website.

ICYMI: CASCW’s Executive Director discusses 5 recommendations for foster care success in CEHD’s Vision 2020 Blog

On Friday, May 31, at the conclusion of National Foster Care Month, Dr. Traci LaLiberte, the executive director of the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare, wrote for the College of Education and Human Development’s Vision 2020 Blog on how we can improve child welfare services through research. The recommendations she listed were:

  1. Practitioners must be trauma sensitive.
  2. Kids should remain connected to people, routines, and activities in their current lives while in out-of-home care.
  3. Kids must be supported in their connections with adults and be able to understand safe connections.
  4. Professionals should work together across fields/systems to promote children’s well-being.
  5. Professionals should actively attend to the wider range of well-being indicators for children in out-of-home care.

Read the entire blog post here, and let us know what you think!

New FREE certificate program for metro-area child welfare practitioners

The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) is collaborating with the Center for Early Education and Development (CEED) and the Institute of Child Development (ICD) to offer metro-area child welfare practitioners the opportunity to enroll in the University of Minnesota Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health (IECMH) certificate program at no cost to participants or counties. This intensive training promotes interdisciplinary skills and policies necessary to support the social emotional development of at-risk children ages birth to five and the well-being of families.
This training is founded on a core set of infant and early childhood mental health principles, asserting that child welfare services (among others) for families should be relationship-based, multi-generational, culturally sensitive, grounded in developmental and trauma theory, and supported by reflective practice.
One-Year Program Structure
Orientation will be September 12, 2013 from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM. The course will meet one Thursday and Friday per month for 8 months (September 2013 through April 2014) at the University of Minnesota.

  • Thursdays: 3:00 PM to 7:00 PM
  • Fridays: 8:30 AM to 3:30 PM

Consultation will be bi-weekly (twice per month) in small group sessions for four months (May through August 2014).
Program Enrollment
IECMH will hold three spaces for participants from each of the metro-area counties—Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott, Washington, and Wright—until July 1st. After that, the spaces will be opened to participants from any of the metro-area counties on a first-come, first-serve basis. We are encouraging all applicants to talk with their supervisors/managers prior to submitting their applications. County administrators will be consulted by IECMH in prioritizing applications from each county.
For more information and to request an application, please email Ellen Lepinski at lepin008@umn.edu. You can also visit the website at http://z.umn.edu/iecmhcw.

Archived video footage of “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability” conference now available online

On Tuesday, May 7, the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) held their 14th annual child welfare conference, “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability,” featuring Dr. Dick Sobsey from the University of Alberta, Dr. Traci LaLiberte from CASCW, and Dr. Elizabeth Lightfoot from the University of Minnesota School of Social Work. CASCW has since made available archived video footage for online viewing.
To view the conference online via archived video, or to download materials and handouts from the conference, please visit http://z.umn.edu/cwdisability.

Now available online: Spring 2013 CW360°, “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability: Focus on Children”

Download “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability: Focus on Children”
The Spring 2013 issue of CW360°, “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability: Focus on Children,” from the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) is now available online. This CW360° explores issues impacting children with disabilities in child welfare and provides examples of policy solutions and practice strategies for working with this population.
It is essential for child welfare workers and advocates to understand and be aware of the prevalence of disability in child welfare. As Traci LaLiberte and Tracy Crudo state in their letter from the editors,

“There is not a child welfare worker, supervisor, or administrator practicing in the field today that has not or will not come into contact with children with disabilities. Indeed, it is likely that many of the children on any given child welfare worker’s caseload have some form of disability.”

CASCW’s annual CW360° magazine provides comprehensive information on the latest research, policies, and practices in a key area affecting child well-being to communities, child welfare professionals, and other human service professionals. CASCW will also produce a special issue this summer focusing on parents with disabilities in the child welfare system.
To view the current and past issues of CW360°, visit the CW360° webpage on the CASCW website.

Register for CASCW’s 14th Annual Child Welfare Conference: The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability

Registration is now open for the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare’s (CASCW) 14th annual free child welfare conference, “The Intersection of Child Welfare and Disability,” on May 7, 2013, from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM.
The conference will be held in the McNamara Alumni Center on the University of Minnesota’s East Bank campus, and will also be available via live web stream.
CASCW is pleased to feature the following keynote presenters:

  • Dr. Dick Sobsey, Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Alberta and Director of the JP Das Developmental Disabilities Centre.
  • Dr. Traci LaLiberte, Director of the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota, and
  • Dr. Elizabeth Lightfoot, Associate Professor and PhD Program Director at the University of Minnesota School of Social Work.

Following the keynote presenters, staff from the National Resource Center on Youth Development will discuss the development and use of their guide on psychotropic medication for youth in foster care.
In the afternoon, CASCW will host two panel presentations featuring practitioners discussing local reactions and application of the information provided in the morning keynote presentations.
For more details on the event, see our event webpage found here.
Participants may earn up to 6 CEUs for their attendance.

Information and registration for On-Site Attendees may be found here.
(There is a $15 fee for lunch.)
Information and registration for Web Stream Viewers may be found here.
(There is no charge for live web stream.)

Please note: Registration will only be available through Wednesday, April 24, 2013.
In the meantime, if you have any questions, please contact Nora Lee at cascw@umn.edu or 612-624-4231.
We look forward to your attendance!

Two new child welfare policy briefs now available on CASCW website

The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare has published two new child welfare policy briefs:

PB7Cover Father Engagement in Child Welfare looks at how policy can be used to positively engage fathers in their child welfare-involved children’s lives. Highlighted policy issues surround bringing consistency to practice, coordinating between child protection and child support, and overcoming legal barriers to involvement.
PB1UpdCover Child Well-Being in Minnesota: A Primer for the 2013–2014 Legislative Session is a briefing on Minnesota’s child welfare system, including child protection, foster care, and adoption service systems. It highlights populations served, funding structures, and decision-making criteria for evidence-based policy solutions.

To access all seven child welfare policy briefs, please visit the Center’s Child Welfare Policy Briefs webpage, part of the overall Child Welfare Policy web section.

Now available: Funding for MSW students interested in child welfare

The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) is now accepting applications for Title IV-E funding from prospective and current Master of Social Work students who are interested in child welfare.
Federal Social Security Title IV-E funds subsidize child welfare services to keep children in their families when possible, provide permanency planning services, or finance out-of-home placement. Public child welfare services are those provided by state or county child protection, foster care, adoption, and family services agencies.
By providing Title IV-E educational support to MSW students, CASCW seeks to improve the quality of public child welfare services. Students who receive this support follow child welfare-specific curriculum requirements, including selecting Family and Children as a primary concentration. Students also attend CASCW meetings, forums, and experiential learning events to further their knowledge, and seek and accept post-graduate employment in a public child welfare setting.
Financial support varies each year, depending upon CASCW’s access to federal matching funds. Generally financial support amounts to $5,000 per semester for three or four semesters depending on student program. Stipend awards are contingent upon the Center’s receipt of Title IV-E funding. The Title IV-E budget and University educational costs for 2013-14 are not known at this time.
To apply, please visit our Title IV-E Stipend Information webpage.
If you have questions regarding Title IV-E educational support, please contact Liz Snyder at snyde276@umn.edu.

“Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice” CW360 now available online and in print

The Winter 2013 issue of CW360°, “Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice,” from the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare in partnership with the Ambit Network is now available online and in print. This issue focuses on trauma-informed practice with children and families involved in the child welfare system.
CW360° is meant to provide communities, child welfare professionals, and other human service professionals with comprehensive information on the latest research, policies, and practices in a key area affecting child well-being today. As Traci LaLiberte and Tracy Crudo state in their letter from the editors,

“It is no longer a question of whether to incorporate trauma-informed organizational and practice strategies into child welfare practice, but how.”

This year will also see two more issues of CW360° addressing children and parents with disabilities in the child welfare system. To view past issues, visit the CW360° webpage on our website.

New tool measures connections of youth in foster care with supportive adults

A new tool called the Youth Connections Scale has been developed by Annette Semanchin Jones, Ph.D. candidate at the School of Social Work, and Traci LaLiberte, executive director of the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare, in partnership with Anu Family Services, that measures the level of connectedness of youth in foster care with supportive adults.
Research has shown that supportive adult connections for youth have many positive long-term effects, including improved self-esteem, educational achievement, and social skill development. Yet too often, youth lose their prior supportive adult connections while in out-of-home care.
The Youth Connections Scale, or YCS, was developed to fill a need in child welfare: to evaluate and measure the increased efforts of agencies to improve the level of connectedness of youth with supportive adults as a component of relational permanence of youth in foster care. Relational permanence has been defined as the lifelong connections youth develop to caring adults, which include at least one adult who will provide a permanent, parent-like connection for that youth. Many experts and scholars now advocate for child welfare agencies to increase their focus on building such permanent, supportive connections for youth while in out-of-home care.
The results of a pilot validation study of the YCS indicate that the YCS is a useful tool for child welfare agencies to measure the relational permanence of youth in foster care and strengthen their practice of creating a safety net of caring and supportive adults for these youth. This study was recently accepted for publication in Children and Youth Services Review1.
For more information on the YCS, please visit the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare’s Youth Connections Scale website at http://z.umn.edu/YCS.

1Citation: Jones, A. S., & LaLiberte, T. (in press). Measuring youth connections: A component of relational permanence for foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review.

First cohort of adoption-competent mental health and child welfare workers to graduate

PACC_logoFULL_SMALLOn January 18, 2013, the Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) will graduate its first cohort of 39 adoption-competent mental health and child welfare workers through CASCW’s Permanency and Adoption Competency Certificate (PACC) program. The graduation celebration will take place from 4 PM to 6 PM in the Minnesota Commons Room at the University of Minnesota St. Paul Student Center. Senator Amy Klobuchar, Representative Michele Bachmann, and the Human Services Commissioner Lucinda Jesson have been invited.
The PACC is a professional training program developed in response to community demand for an adoption-competent mental health and child welfare workforce able to serve the unique and complex clinical and practice needs for adopted individuals and their families throughout Minnesota. Through the PACC, mental health and child welfare workers are given the knowledge and skills needed to serve families and help prevent disruptions in the post-adoption period.
The PACC includes the nationally recognized Training on Adoption Competency curriculum developed by the Center for Adoption Support and Education (C.A.S.E.) and additional modules focusing on child welfare permanency and the Indian Child Welfare Act. The PACC emphasizes the use of ‘real world’ case studies, small group work, and partner interactions in order to promote critical thinking and practice application discussions among participants.

“Going through the different case studies and having discussion was most helpful and relevant, as I can use the feedback [and] ideas to help in my job in engaging families I work with.” Participant Response

Graduates of the PACC will be listed in a searchable online database. Families and professionals will have access to this database in order to locate adoption-competent practitioners in their area.
There are 37 additional participants in the current (fall 2012) cohorts in Rochester and the Twin Cities that will graduate in 2014.
For more information, please visit the PACC website.